For a long time, water shortage and excessive use of fertilizers have been important factors restricting the sustainable and healthy development of agriculture in China. China's water resources are relatively poor, with an average annual precipitation of about 630 mm and an average per capita occupancy of only 2300 meters, which is equivalent to only 1/4 of the world's per capita freshwater resources. Influenced by human activities, the world is experiencing unprecedented climate change in human history. Since the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of CO2 in the global atmosphere is increasing day by day. The increase of CO2 will not only lead to global warming, but also lead to climate drought, soil salinization and alkalization, resulting in more scarcity of freshwater resources. How to save water for agriculture and how to improve water use efficiency of agriculture through engineering, agronomic management and information measures are the key to save freshwater resources, promote sustainable utilization of water resources and accelerate social and economic development. Excessive use of chemical fertilizer not only causes serious waste of resources, but also causes a series of environmental problems. Therefore, while pursuing high yield, high quality and low cost of crops, agriculture should also maintain sustainable development. To achieve this goal, the premise is to have an optimal and balanced water and nutrient supply.
Traditional irrigation and fertilization are carried out separately, and crops are in a cycle of "hunger, satiety and satiety". From the point of view of fertilization, although there are many traditional dry fertilization methods, such as spraying, centralized application, stratified application, foliar application and so on, the fertilizer utilization rate of these methods is not particularly ideal. In recent years, with the development of water irrigation technology, the application of integrated water and fertilizer technology combined with it has attracted people's attention.
Water and fertilizer integration technology, also known as irrigation fertilizer machine technology, is a new agricultural technology that combines irrigation and fertilization. It is the product of combination of Precise Fertilization and precise irrigation. With the help of pressure system (or natural topographic drop), according to the law and characteristics of soil nutrient content and crop type fertilizer requirement, the soluble solid or liquid fertilizer is mixed with irrigation water, which is evenly and accurately transported to the soil of crop root through controlled pipeline system to soak the growth and development of crop root system. Regions keep the main root soils loose and suitable water content all the time. According to the different irrigation methods, the integration of water and fertilizer mainly includes canal irrigation, pipeline irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, pump pressure drip irrigation, gravity drip irrigation, seepage irrigation, etc. Canal irrigation is the simplest and requires little fertilizer, but this kind of irrigation is not conducive to water-saving requirements; drip irrigation is the most accurate water supply and fertilizer supply according to crop water demand, fertilizer demand and root distribution, which is not restricted by external conditions such as wind; sprinkler irrigation is relatively not suitable for drip irrigation. So chivalrous integrated technology of water and fertilizer is also called drip irrigation and fertilization.